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SAT2化学知识点汇总

2019-04-29 17:33     供稿单位: 网络    

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  SAT2化学知识点汇总

  (一)Introduction to Chemistry 化学入门

  Matter 物质

  Definition of Water(物质的定义)

  States of Matter(物质的状态)

  Composition of Matter (物质的构成)

  Chemical and Physical Properties(化学性质和物理性质)

  Chemical and Physical Changes (化学变化和物理变化)

  Conservation of Mass (质量守恒)

  Energy 能量

  Definition of Energy(能量的定义)

  Forms of Energy(能量的?#38382;?

  Types of Reactions(Exothermic Versus Endothermic) 反应类型(放热对吸热)

  Conservation of Energy (能量守恒)

  Conservation of Mass and Energy(质能守恒)

  Scientific Method(科学方法)

  Measurements and Calculations(测量和计算)

  Metric System(指标系统)

  Temperature Measurements(温度测量)

  Heat Measurements(热量测量)

  Scientific Notation (科学记数法)

  Factor-Label Method of Conversion(Dimensional Analysis)转换方法(量纲分析)

  Precision, Accuracy, and Uncertainty(精密度,准确度,不确定度)

  Significant Figures(有效数字)

  Calculations with Significant Figures (有效数?#20540;?#35745;算)


  (二)Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table of the Elements原子结构&元素周期表

  Electric Nature of Atoms原子的电本质

  History (历史)Basic Electric Charges(基本电荷)

  Bohr Model of the Atom(原子的波尔模型)

  Components of Atomic Structure(原子结构构成)

  Calculating Average Atomic Mass(计算平均原子量)

  Oxidation Number and Valence(氧化数和化合价)

  Metallic, Nonmetallic, and Noble Gas Structures(?#36164;?#30005;子.易得电子.惰性气体结构)

  Reactivity(反应)

  Atomic Spectra 原子光谱

  Spectroscopy(光谱学)

  Mass Spectroscopy (质谱学)

  The Wave-Mechanical Model 波动力学模型

  Quantum Numbers(量子数)

  Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity 很大规模多重性洪特法则

  Sublevels and Electron Configuration 原子内电子排布

  Order of Filing and Notation(电子填充次序和命名)

  Electron Dot Notation(Lewis Dot Structures)(Lewis 点结构)

  Noble Gas Notation(稀有气体元素)

  Transition Elements and Variable Oxidation Numbers(过渡元素和可变的氧化数)

  Period Table of the Elements元素周期表

  History(历史)

  Periodic Law(周期律)

  The Table(周期表)

  Properties Related to the Periodic Table(元素周期表的性质)

  Radii of Atoms(原子半径)

  Atomic Radii in Periods(同周期的原子半径)

  Atomic Radii in Groups(同族的原子半径)

  Ionic Radius Compared to Atomic Radius(相对原子半径的离子半径)

  Electro negativity(电负性)

  Electron Affinity(电子亲和能)

  Ionization Energy(电离能)


  (三)Bonding 化学键

  Types of Bonds 化学键类型

  Ionic Bonds(离子键)

  Covalent Bonds(共价键)

  Metallic Bonds(金属键)

  Intermolecular Forces of Attraction 分子间的吸引力

  Dipole-Dipole Attraction(极性分子间的吸引力)

  London Forces(伦敦力)

  Hydrogen Bonds(氢键)

  Double and Triple Bonds(双键和三键)

  Resonance Structures(共振结构)

  Molecular Geometry—VSEPR—and Hybridization 分子?#36127;?#23398;—价层电子对互斥理论和杂化轨道理论

  VSEPR—Electrostatic Repulsion(VSEPR—价层电子对互斥理论)

  VSEPR and Unshared Electron (VSEPR和非共享电子对)

  VSEPR and Molecular Geometry(VSEPR和分子?#36127;?#23398;)

  Hybridization(杂化轨道理论)

  Sigma and Pi Bonds (Sigma键和Pi键)

  Properties of Ionic Substances(离子化合物的性质)

  Properties of Molecular Crystals and Liquids (分子晶体与液晶的性质)

  Chemical Formulas 化学分子式

  Writing Formulas (写分子式)

  General Observations About Oxidation States and Formula Writing(氧化状态和分子式写作的一般性结论)

  More About Oxidation Numbers (关于氧化数)

  Naming Compounds (化合物命名)


  (?#27169;〤hemical Formulas (化学分子式)

  Laws of Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions (定比定律和倍比定律)

  Writing and Balancing Simple Equations (写作和平衡简单方程式)

  Showing Phases in Chemical Equations (化学平衡式)

  Writing Ionic Equations (书写离子方程式)


  (五)Gases and the Gas Laws 气体和气体定律

  Introduction—Gases in the Environment(入门—环境中的气体)

  Some Representative Gases(一些?#20889;?#34920;性的气体)

  Oxygen(氧气)

  Hydrogen(氢气)

  General Characteristics of Gases(气体的基本特征)

  Measuring the Pressure of a Gas(测量气压)

  Kinetic Molecular Theory(气体动力论)

  Some Particular Properties of Gases(气体的特殊性质)

  Gas Laws and Related Problems(气体定律和相关的难题)

  Graham’s Law(格锐目定律)

  Charles’s Law(查理定律)

  Boyle’s Law(波义耳定律)

  Combined Gas Law(混合气体定律)

  Pressure Versus Temperature(气压和温度)

  Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures (道尔顿分压定律)

  Corrections of Pressure(压力校正)

  Ideal Gas Law(理想气体定律)

  Ideal Gas Deviations(理想气体偏差)


  (六)Chemical Calculations(Stoichiometry)and the Mole Concept 化学计算器&摩尔内容

  Solving Problems in Chemistry(解答化学难题)

  The Mole Concept(摩尔内容)

  Molar Mass and Moles(摩尔质量和摩尔)

  Mole Relationships(摩尔关系)

  Gas Volumes and Molar Mass(气体体积和摩尔质量)

  Density and molar Mass(密度和摩尔质量)

  Mass-Volume Relationships(摩尔与体积的关系)

  Mass-Mass Problems(质量—质量难题)

  Problems with an Excess of One Reactant(涉及某一反应物多余的难题)


  (七)Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes 液体,固体和状态变化

  Liquids(液体)Importance of Intermolecular Interaction(分子间相互作用的重要性)

  Kinetics of Liquids(液体动力学)

  Viscosity(粘性)

  Surface Tension(表面张力)

  Capillary Action(毛细作用)

  Phase Equilibrium(平衡状态)

  Boiling Point(沸点)

  Critical Temperature and Pressure(临界温度和临界压力)

  Solids(固体)

  Phase Diagrams(状态图表)

  Water(水)

  History of Water(水的历史)

  Purification of Water(水净化)

  Composition of Water(水的构成)

  Properties and Uses of Water(水的性质和使用)

  Water’s Reactions with Anhydrides(水和碱性氧化物的反应)

  Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding(极性和氢键)

  Solubility(可溶性)

  General Rules of Solubility(可溶性的基本原则)

  Factors That Affect Rate of Solubility(影响溶解率的因素)

  Summary of Types of Solutes and Relationships of Type to Solubility (溶液类型和类型之间关系的总结)

  Water Solutions(水处理)

  Continuum of Water Mixtures(水混合溶剂)

  Expressions of Concentration(浓度的表达)

  Dilution(稀释)

  Colligative Properties of Solutions(溶液的依数性)

  Crystallization(结晶化)


  (八)Chemical Reactions and Thermochemistry 化学反应和热化学

  Types of Reactions(反应类型)

  Predicting Reactions(预知化学反应)

  Combination(Known Also as Synthesis(化合反应)

  Decomposition(Known Also as Analysis(分解反应)

  Single Replacement(置换反应)

  Double Replacement(复分解反应)

  Hydrolysis Reactions(水解反应)

  Entropy(熵)

  Thermochemistry(热化学)

  Changes in Enthalpy(焓变化)

  Additivity of Reaction Heats and Hess’s Law(反应热加成性定律—赫士定律)

  Bond Dissociation Energy(键裂解能)

  Enthalpy from Bond Energies(键能中的键焓)


  (九)Rates of Chemical Reactions 化学反应速率

  Measurements of Reaction Rates(反应速率的测量)

  Factors Affecting Reaction Rates(影响反应速率的因素)

  Collision Theory of Reaction Rates(化学反应速率的碰撞理论)

  Activation Energy(激活能)

  Reaction Rate Law(化学反应速?#35782;?#24459;)

  Reaction Mechanism and Rates of Reaction(化学反应机制和化学反应速率)


  (十)Chemical Equilibrium化学平衡

  Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium(可逆反应和平衡)

  Le Chatelier’s Principle(化学平衡移动原理—勒复特?#24615;?#29702;)

  Effects of Changing Conditions(条件变化的影响)

  Effect of Changing the Concentrations(浓度改变的影响)

  Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium(平衡?#24418;?#24230;改变的影响)

  Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium(平衡中压力改变的影响)

  Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems(异构系统中的平衡)

  Equilibrium Constant for Systems Involving Solids(涉及固体的系统平衡常数)

  Acid Ionization Constants(酸电离常数)

  Ionization Constant of Water(水电离常数)

  Solubility Products(溶解度产物)

  Common Ion Effect(同离子效应)

  Driving Forces of Reactions(反应推动力)

  Relation of Minimum Energy(Enthalpy) to Maximum Disorder(Entropy)(焓—熵关系)

  Change in Free Energy of a System-the Gibbs Equation(系统中?#26434;?#33021;的变化—吉布?#26500;?#24335;)


  (十一)Acids, Bases, and Salts 酸,碱,盐

  Definitions and Properties(定义?#25176;?#36136;)

  Acids(酸)

  Bases(碱)

  Broader Acid-Base Theories(酸—碱理论)

  Conjugate Acids and Bases(共轭酸碱)

  Strengh of Conjugate Acids and Bases(共轭酸碱强度)

  Acid Concentration Expressed as pH(pH表示为酸浓度)

  Indicators(指示剂)

  Titration—Volumetric Analysis(滴定—容量分析法)

  Buffer Solutions(缓冲溶液)

  Salts(盐)

  Amphoteric Substances(两性物质)

  Acid Rain—An Environmental Concern(酸雨—共同关心的环境问题)


  (十二)Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry 氧化—还原反应和电化学

  Ionization(电离)

  Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry(氧化---还原反应和电化学)

  Voltaic Cells(伏打电池)

  Electrode Potentials(电极电位)

  Electrolytic Cells(电解池)

  Applications of Electrochemical Cells(Commercial Voltaic Cells)(电化电池的应用)

  Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis(电解现象)

  Relationship Between Quantity of Electricity and Amount of Products(电量和数量的关系)

  Balancing Redox Equations Using Oxidation Numbers(用氧化数配平氧化还原方程式)

  The Ion-Electron Method(离子—电子法)


  (十三)Some Representative Groups and Families 一些?#20889;?#34920;性的元素族

  Sulfur Family(S族) Sulfuric Acid(硫酸)

  Other Important Compounds of Sulfur(S元素的其他重要化合物)

  Halogen Family(卤素)

  Some important Halides and Their Uses(一些重要的卤化物及其应用)

  Nitrogen Family(氮族)

  Nitric Acid(硝酸)

  Other Important Compounds of Nitrogen(N元素的其他重要化合物)

  Other Members of the Nitrogen Family(N族的其他区成员)

  Metals(金属) Properties of Metals(金属性质)

  Some Important Reduction Methods(一些重要的还原方法)

  Alloys(铝) Metalloids(非金属)


  (十?#27169;〤arbon and Organic Chemistry 碳和有机化学

  Carbon(碳)

  Forms of Carbon(碳的构成)

  Carbon Dioxide(二氧化碳)

  Organic Chemistry(有机化学)

  Hydrocarbons(?#35760;?#21270;合物)

  Alkane Series(Saturated)(烷烃)

  Alkene Series(Unsaturated)

  Alkyne Series(Unsaturated)(炔属烃)

  Aromatics(芳烃)

  Isomers(异构体)

  Changing Hydrocarbons(?#35760;?#21270;合物的改变)

  Hydrocarbon Derivatives(?#35760;?#21270;合物的衍生物)

  Alcohols—Methanol an Ethanol(酒精—?#29366;?#21644;乙醇)

  Other Alcohols(其他酒精) Aldehydes(乙醛)

  Organic Acids or Carboxylic Acids(有机酸和羧酸)

  Ketones(酮)

  Ethers(醚)

  Amines and Amino Acids(胺和氨基酸)

  Esters(酯)

  Carbohydrates(碳水化合物)

  Monosaccharides and Disaccharides(单糖和二糖)

  Polysaccharides(多糖)

  Polymers(聚合体)


  (十五)Nucleonics 原子核物理学

  Radioactivity(放射热)

  The Nature of Radioactive Emissions(放射的本质)

  Methods of Detection of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays(α,β和γ射线)

  Decay Series, Transmutations, and Half-life(衰变,嬗变和半衰期)

  Radioactive Dating(放射年代测定法)

  Nuclear Energy(核能)

  Conditions for Fission(核裂变条件)

  Methods of Obtaining Fissionable Material(得到裂变材料的方法)

  Fusion(核聚变)

  Radiation Exposure(辐射暴露)


  (十六)The Laboratory 实验室

  Technology in the Laboratory(实验?#20381;?#30340;?#38469;?

  Some Basic Setups(一些基本步骤)

  Summary of Qualitative Tests(定性测试总结)

  Ⅰ. Identification of Some Common Gases(常见气体?#29616;?

  Ⅱ.Identification of Some NegativeIons(负离子?#29616;?

  Ⅲ . Identification of Some Positive Ions(正离子?#29616;?

  Ⅳ .Qualitative Tests of Some Metals(金属的定性测试


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上期平码什么意思
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